1. integer: one of the set of whole numbers and their operations.

2. rational number: any number that can be expressed as a ratio in the fraction form a/b where a and b are integers and b is not equal to 0.

3. scientific notation expresses a number as the product of a number between 1 and 10 , and a power of 10.

4. perfect square: a number that has integers as its square roots.

5. irrational number: can be written as a non-terminating or a non-repeating decimal.

6. real numbers: formed by combining the set of rational numbers and the set of irrational numbers.

7. Density Property: between every 2 real numbers, rational or irrational, there is always another real number.

Concept 2

1. odds: a ratio that compares the number of favorable outcomes and the number of unfavorable outcomes.

2. proportion: an equation which states that 2 ratios are equivalent.

3. rate: ratios that compare quantities of different units.

4. unit rate: when the 2nd term of the ratio is 1, the rate is a unit rate.

5. unit price: a unit rate for prices is often called a unit price.

Concept 3

1. numerical expression: includes numbers and at least one of the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

2. algebraic expression: an expression that is written using at least one variable.

3. variable: a letter that represents one or more numbers.

4. equation: a mathematical sentence that uses an equals sign to show that 2 expressions are equal.

5. inequality: a mathematical sentence that compares expressions that are not equal, using the symbol <, >, or <, > or not equal.

6. evaluate: find the value of.

7. equivalent: when numerical expressions have the same value.

8. coefficient: the number that is multiplied by the variable; can be positive or negative.

9. term: a real number, a variable, or the product of real numbers and variables.

10. like term: when 2 or more terms have the same variables and the same powers of these variables

11. combine like terms: to add or subtract like terms.

12. simplify: when you combine like terms in an algebraic expression.

13. simplest form: the expression that results from simplifying.

Concept 4

1. solution: if a value of a variable makes an equation true, the variable is the solution.

2. substitute: put the value in place of the variable.

3. 2-step equation: represents 2 different operations.

Concept 5

1. algebraic inequality: an inequality that contains a variable.

Concept 6

1. solution of an equation with 2 variables: an ordered pair if the equation is a true statement when the values of x and y are substituted in the equation.

2. graph of an equation: the graph of all its solutions.

3. linear equation: equation whose graph is a straight line.

4. parabola: the U-shaped curve on each graph.

Concept 7

1. tessellation: a repeating pattern of plane figures that completely covers a plane with no gaps or overlapping.

2. basic unit: the shape that is repeated in a tessellation.

4. semi regular polyhedron: solid formed from patterns of more than one kind of regular polygon; meet in same arrangement at each vertex.

5. spiral: a curve traced by a point rotating around and around from a fixed point.

6. Archimedean spiral: spiral in which the loops are evenly spaced.

7. equiangular spiral: spiral in which a ray drawn from the center intersects the loops at a constant angle.

8. helix: spiral-shaped curve in space that goes around an axis.

9. spirolateral: geometric design that is generated from a sequence of numbers.

10. consecutive integers: integers that are next to each other in counting order, such as 3, 4 and 8, 9, 10.

11. fractal: structure with repeating patterns containing shapes that are like the whole but of different sizes throughout.

12. diverge: get large without bound.

13. converge: become small.

14. scale factor: ratio for pairs of corresponding sides of similar figures.

15. Sierpinski triangle: geometric images that imitate nature.

Concept 8

1. term of a sequence: a number in the sequence.

2. common difference: a fixed number added to form a new term of sequence.

3. arithmetic sequence: what the sequence is called after new terms are added.

4. common ratio: the constant factor that is used to multiply to form new terms.

5. geometric sequence: what the sequence is called after new terms are multiplied.

6. Fibonacci sequence: branching pattern in growth of a plant.

7. Golden Ratio: any ratio that has a decimal value of about 1.6.

8. Golden Rectangle: a rectangle that has a length-to-width ratio of about 1.6 to 1.

Concept 9

1. similar figure: have same shape but not necessarily the same size.

2. proportional: equal.

3. similarity ratio: the scale factor of 2 similar figures is the common ratio of the lengths of pairs of corresponding sides.

4. scale drawing: represents a real object or place

5. self-similarity: when a scale has a special similarity property; small parts of the figure are scale drawings of the whole figure at different scales.

Concept 10

1. scale model: a proportional model of a solid, or 3 dimensional object.

Concept 11

1. percent of increase: the amount something increases in ratio of 100; per hundred.

2. percent of decrease: the amount something decreases in ratio of 100; per hundred.

3. commission: a fee paid to a person for making a sale.

4. commission rate: the percent the person is paid.

5. sales tax: the tax on the sale of an item or a service.

6. withholding tax: a deduction from a person's earnings as an advance payment on income tax.

7. interest: a fee paid for the use of money.

8. principal: amount of money borrowed or invested.

9. rate of interest: the percent charged or earned.

10. time: (in years) that the money is borrowed or invested.

11. compound interest: computed on both the principal and the interest previously earned.

12. annually: computed once a year.

13. semiannually: computed twice a year.

14. quarterly: computed 4 times a year.

Concept 12

1. sample:part of a group.

2. population: the whole group.

3. side-by-side histogram: one way to organize, display, and compare 2 sets of similar data.

4. back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot: another way to organize, display, and compare 2 sets of similar data.

5. interpolation: an estimate or prediction of an unknown value between 2 known values.

6. extrapolation: an estimate or prediction of an unknown value beyond known values.

Concept 13

1. central tendency: type of average.

2. variability: spread of values.

3. box-and-whisker graphs: organization of data that shows how far aprat and how evenly the data are distributed.

4. second quartile: the median of a set of data, that is the middle number, or the sum of the 2 middle numbers divided by 2, when the numbers are arranged in order.

5. first quartile: the median of the lower half of a set of data.

6. third quartile: the median of the upper half of a set of data.

7. scatterplot: a graph made by plotting points on a coordinate plane.

8. line of best fir: a straight line drawn through as much data as possible on a scatterplot.

9. positive correlation: a relation in which 2 sets of data increase or decrease at the same time.

10. negative correlation: a relation in which one set of data increases as the other decreases.

11. no correlation: when data points are scattered, there is no relationship between the 2 variables.

Concept 14

1. sample space: all possible outcomes in a given situation.

2. tree diagram: a branching diagram which shows all possible outcomes.

3. Fundamental Counting Principle: the principle which states that all possible outcomes in a sample space can be found by multiplying the number of ways each event can occur.

4. factorial: the product of all whole numbers, except zero, less than or equal to a number.

5. permutation: an arrangement of things in a definite order.

6. combination: an arrangement of items or events in which order does not matter.

7. mathematical probability: the number used to describe the chance that an event will happen.

8. independent events: outcome of first event does not affect the outcome of the second event.

9. dependent events: events for which the outcome of one event is affected by the outcome of the other event.

Concept 15

1. transversal: a line that intersects 2 or more lines.

2. interior angle: angles on the inner side of 2 line cut by a transversal.

3. exterior angle: angles on the outer sides of 2 line cut by a transversal.

4. bisect: to divide into 2 congruent parts.

Concept 16

1. image: the figure in a new position, location, or size that is the result of a transformation.

2. dilation: a transformation that enlarges or reduces a figure.

Concept 17

1. perspective: a technique used to make 3 dimensional objects appear to have depth and distance on a flat surface.

2. vanishing point: in a perspective drawing, parallel lines running directly away from the viewer which are drawn so that they come together at a point.

3. horizon line: a horizontal line that represents the viewer's eye level.

4. cross section: the figure formed by the intersection of a plane and a solid figure.

Concept 18

1. direct variation: a relationship between 2 sets of data such that the data increase or decrease together at a constant rate.

Concept 19

1. slope: the measure of the steepness of a line; ratio of vertical change to horizontal change.

2. x-intercept: x-coordinate of the point where the graph crosses the x axis.

3. y-intercept: y-coordinate of the point where the graph crosses the y axis.

4. slope-intercept form:y=mx+b; the m is the slpe and the b is the y-intercept

5. system of equations: 2 or more linear equations graphed in the same coordinate plane.

6. solution of the system: sometimes the graphs of the equations intersect at a point, the coordinates of the point are the solution of the system.

7. relation: a set of ordered pairs.

8. domain: the set of the 1st elements of a relation.

9. range: the difference between the greatest number and the least number on a set of data.

10. function:a relation in which no 2 ordered pairs have the same x-value.

11. vertical line test: if any vertical lines intersect a graph at more than one point, the graph does not represent a function; otherwise it does

12. linear function: a function whose graph is a straight line.

13. nonlinear function: a function whose graph is not a straight line.

Concept 20

1. monomial: an expression that is a number, a variable, or the product of a number and one or more variables.

2. simplify a polynomial: to combine (add or subtract) like terms.

3. standard form: polynomial whose terms are arranged so that the exponents or a variable decrease from left to right.

Concept 21

1. network: a figure made up of vertices and edges that show how objects are connected.

2. vertex: a point where 2 or more rays meet, where sides of a polygon meet, or where edges of a polyhedron meet.

3. edge: the line segment along which 2 faces of a polyhedron intersect.

4. odd vertex: odd number of lines coming from it.

5. even vertex: even number of lines coming from it.accuracy: shown by the number of significant digits.

6. significant digits: tell the number of digits used to express the accuracy of a measure.surface area: the sum of the areas of the faces, or surfaces, of a solid figure.

7. lateral surface: the curved surface of a cylinder or a cone.

8. slant height: the distance from the base of a cone to its vertex, measured along the lateral surface.

Concept 22

1. leg: in a right triangle, either of the 2 sides that intersect to form the right angle; in an isosceles triangle, one of the 2 congruent sides.

2. hypotenuse: in a right triangle, the side opposite the right angle.

3. Pythagorean Property: in any right triangle, if a and b are the lengths of the lges and c is the length of the hypotenuse, the a2+b2=c2.

4. trigonometric ratio: ratio which compares the lengths of the sides of a right triangle; common ratio are tangent, sine, and cosine.

5. trig ratio: another name for trigonometric ratios.

Math 8 - Need Extra Help - Please click here!8th grade Math vocabulary / Calendar

2015-2016Concept 1integer:one of the set of whole numbers and their operations.rational number:any number that can be expressed as a ratio in the fraction forma/bwhereaandbare integers andbis not equal to0.scientific notationexpresses a number as the product of a number between 1 and 10 , and a power of 10.perfect square:a number that has integers as its square roots.irrational number:can be written as a non-terminating or a non-repeating decimal.real numbers:formed by combining the set of rational numbers and the set of irrational numbers.Density Property:between every 2 real numbers, rational or irrational, there is always another real number.Concept 2odds:a ratio that compares the number of favorable outcomes and the number of unfavorable outcomes.proportion:an equation which states that 2 ratios are equivalent.rate:ratios that compare quantities of different units.unit rate:when the 2nd term of the ratio is 1, the rate is a unit rate.unit price:a unit rate for prices is often called a unit price.Concept 3numerical expression:includes numbers and at least one of the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.algebraic expression:an expression that is written using at least one variable.variable:a letter that represents one or more numbers.equation:a mathematical sentence that uses an equals sign to show that 2 expressions are equal.inequality:a mathematical sentence that compares expressions that are not equal, using the symbol <, >, or<,>or not equal.evaluate:find the value of.equivalent:when numerical expressions have the same value.coefficient:the number that is multiplied by the variable; can be positive or negative.term:a real number, a variable, or the product of real numbers and variables.like term:when 2 or more terms have the same variables and the same powers of these variablescombine like terms:to add or subtract like terms.simplify:when you combine like terms in an algebraic expression.simplest form:the expression that results from simplifying.Concept 4solution:if a value of a variable makes an equation true, the variable is the solution.substitute:put the value in place of the variable.2-step equation:represents 2 different operations.Concept 5algebraic inequality:an inequality that contains a variable.Concept 6solution of an equation with 2 variables:an ordered pair if the equation is a true statement when the values ofxandyare substituted in the equation.graph of an equation:the graph of all its solutions.linear equation:equation whose graph is a straight line.parabola:the U-shaped curve on each graph.Concept 7tessellation:a repeating pattern of plane figures that completely covers a plane with no gaps or overlapping.basic unit:the shape that is repeated in a tessellation.Platonic solid:5 regular polyhedron: tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron.semi regular polyhedron:solid formed from patterns of more than one kind of regular polygon; meet in same arrangement at each vertex.spiral:a curve traced by a point rotating around and around from a fixed point.Archimedean spiral:spiral in which the loops are evenly spaced.equiangular spiral:spiral in which a ray drawn from the center intersects the loops at a constant angle.helix:spiral-shaped curve in space that goes around an axis.spirolateral:geometric design that is generated from a sequence of numbers.consecutive integers:integers that are next to each other in counting order, such as 3, 4 and 8, 9, 10.fractal:structure with repeating patterns containing shapes that are like the whole but of different sizes throughout.diverge:get large without bound.converge:become small.scale factor:ratio for pairs of corresponding sides of similar figures.Sierpinski triangle:geometric images that imitate nature.Concept 8term of a sequence:a number in the sequence.common difference:a fixed number added to form a new term of sequence.arithmetic sequence:what the sequence is called after new terms are added.common ratio:the constant factor that is used to multiply to form new terms.geometric sequence:what the sequence is called after new terms are multiplied.Fibonacci sequence:branching pattern in growth of a plant.Golden Ratio:any ratio that has a decimal value of about 1.6.Golden Rectangle:a rectangle that has a length-to-width ratio of about 1.6 to 1.Concept 9similar figure:have same shape but not necessarily the same size.proportional:equal.similarity ratio:the scale factor of 2 similar figures is the common ratio of the lengths of pairs of corresponding sides.scale drawing:represents a real object or placeself-similarity:when a scale has a special similarity property; small parts of the figure are scale drawings of the whole figure at different scales.Concept 10scale model:a proportional model of a solid, or 3 dimensional object.Concept 11percent of increase:the amount something increases in ratio of 100; per hundred.percent of decrease:the amount something decreases in ratio of 100; per hundred.commission:a fee paid to a person for making a sale.commission rate:the percent the person is paid.sales tax:the tax on the sale of an item or a service.withholding tax:a deduction from a person's earnings as an advance payment on income tax.interest:a fee paid for the use of money.principal:amount of money borrowed or invested.rate of interest:the percent charged or earned.time:(in years) that the money is borrowed or invested.compound interest:computed on both the principal and the interest previously earned.annually:computed once a year.semiannually:computed twice a year.quarterly:computed 4 times a year.Concept 12sample:part of a group.population:the whole group.side-by-side histogram:one way to organize, display, and compare 2 sets of similar data.back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot:another way to organize, display, and compare 2 sets of similar data.interpolation:an estimate or prediction of an unknown value between 2 known values.extrapolation:an estimate or prediction of an unknown value beyond known values.Concept 13central tendency:type of average.variability:spread of values.box-and-whisker graphs:organization of data that shows how far aprat and how evenly the data are distributed.second quartile:the median of a set of data, that is the middle number, or the sum of the 2 middle numbers divided by 2, when the numbers are arranged in order.first quartile:the median of the lower half of a set of data.third quartile:the median of the upper half of a set of data.scatterplot:a graph made by plotting points on a coordinate plane.line of best fir:a straight line drawn through as much data as possible on a scatterplot.positive correlation:a relation in which 2 sets of data increase or decrease at the same time.negative correlation:a relation in which one set of data increases as the other decreases.no correlation:when data points are scattered, there is no relationship between the 2 variables.Concept 14sample space:all possible outcomes in a given situation.tree diagram:a branching diagram which shows all possible outcomes.Fundamental Counting Principle:the principle which states that all possible outcomes in a sample space can be found by multiplying the number of ways each event can occur.factorial:the product of all whole numbers, except zero, less than or equal to a number.permutation:an arrangement of things in a definite order.combination:an arrangement of items or events in which order does not matter.mathematical probability:the number used to describe the chance that an event will happen.independent events:outcome of first event does not affect the outcome of the second event.dependent events:events for which the outcome of one event is affected by the outcome of the other event.Concept 15transversal:a line that intersects 2 or more lines.interior angle:angles on the inner side of 2 line cut by a transversal.exterior angle:angles on the outer sides of 2 line cut by a transversal.bisect:to divide into 2 congruent parts.Concept 16image:the figure in a new position, location, or size that is the result of a transformation.dilation:a transformation that enlarges or reduces a figure.Concept 17perspective:a technique used to make 3 dimensional objects appear to have depth and distance on a flat surface.vanishing point:in a perspective drawing, parallel lines running directly away from the viewer which are drawn so that they come together at a point.horizon line:a horizontal line that represents the viewer's eye level.cross section:the figure formed by the intersection of a plane and a solid figure.Concept 18direct variation:a relationship between 2 sets of data such that the data increase or decrease together at a constant rate.Concept 19slope:the measure of the steepness of a line; ratio of vertical change to horizontal change.x-intercept:x-coordinate of the point where the graph crosses the x axis.y-intercept:y-coordinate of the point where the graph crosses the y axis.slope-intercept form:y=mx+b;themis the slpe and thebis they-interceptsystem of equations:2 or more linear equations graphed in the same coordinate plane.solution of the system:sometimes the graphs of the equations intersect at a point, the coordinates of the point are the solution of the system.relation:a set of ordered pairs.domain:the set of the 1st elements of a relation.range:the difference between the greatest number and the least number on a set of data.function:a relation in which no 2 ordered pairs have the samex-value.vertical line test:if any vertical lines intersect a graph at more than one point, the graph does not represent a function; otherwise it doeslinear function:a function whose graph is a straight line.nonlinear function:a function whose graph is not a straight line.Concept 20monomial:an expression that is a number, a variable, or the product of a number and one or more variables.simplify a polynomial:to combine (add or subtract) like terms.standard form:polynomial whose terms are arranged so that the exponents or a variable decrease from left to right.Concept 21network:a figure made up of vertices and edges that show how objects are connected.vertex:a point where 2 or more rays meet, where sides of a polygon meet, or where edges of a polyhedron meet.edge:the line segment along which 2 faces of a polyhedron intersect.odd vertex:odd number of lines coming from it.even vertex:even number of lines coming from it.accuracy:shown by the number of significant digits.significant digits:tell the number of digits used to express the accuracy of a measure.surface area:the sum of the areas of the faces, or surfaces, of a solid figure.lateral surface:the curved surface of a cylinder or a cone.slant height:the distance from the base of a cone to its vertex, measured along the lateral surface.Concept 22leg:in a right triangle, either of the 2 sides that intersect to form the right angle; in an isosceles triangle, one of the 2 congruent sides.hypotenuse:in a right triangle, the side opposite the right angle.Pythagorean Property:in any right triangle, ifaandbare the lengths of the lges andcis the length of the hypotenuse, thea2+b2=c2.trigonometric ratio:ratio which compares the lengths of the sides of a right triangle; common ratio are tangent, sine, and cosine.trig ratio:another name for trigonometric ratios.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lesson Plans1-Thinking with Mathematical Models (Linear and Inverse Variation)

2- Looking for Pythagoras (The Pythagorean Theorem)

3- Growing, Growing, Growing (Exponential Relationship)

4- Frogs, Fleas, and Pained Cubes (Quadratic Relationship)

5- Kaleidoscopes, Hubcaps, and Mirrors (Symmetry and Transformation)

6- Say it With Symbols (Algebraic Reasoning)

7- The Shapes of Algebra (Linear Systems and Inequalities)

8- Samples and Populations (Data Analysis and Probabilities – Data and Statistics)

Homework